Science is the intellectual and practical activity carried out through the systematic study of the elements of the world.
This includes both the level of structural organization and individual behavior and applies to the physical, natural or social environment.
Thus, being a very broad activity, science can offer explanations in different areas. To facilitate the distinction between one and the other, science is usually divided into several types. In this article, we will see what types of science exist and how each is described other than this you can check science quiz questions and answers for the more strong knowledge.
What is science?
Science can also be understood as a body of knowledge on a particular subject. In fact, there are different bodies of knowledge that can be considered a specific type of science.
The distinction between one and the other can be given by their object of study, or they can be distinguished by the research methods that each one uses.
4 main types of science:
Considering that science can cover very large bodies of knowledge, the latter are usually divided according to the specific knowledge they generate. In this sense, three main types of science are usually recognized: formal sciences, natural sciences and social sciences.
- Formal sciences:
The formal sciences are a set of logical and abstract systems that can be applied to different objects of study. The formal sciences are made up of sign systems.
In turn, these systems originate a series of abstract structures through which organization patterns are generated and different phenomena are explained once the presuppositions from which they are based have been accepted
- Factual Sciences:
This type of science presents opposite characteristics to the previous category since in this case, the scientific activity focuses on the study of natural and social phenomena that exist beyond ideas. In other words, models are created that represent objective phenomena that can be located in space-time and measured.
If in the formal sciences one works starting from abstract thought, in the factual sciences one starts from the observation of a phenomenon belonging to the empirical sphere, and not of rationality.
- Natural sciences:
As its name indicates, the object of study of the natural sciences is nature and the phenomena that occur in it. It is in charge of describing, explaining, understanding and/or predicting them. These phenomena, in turn, can range from biology to the most complex elements in the universe.
In fact, the natural sciences are usually subdivided into two large groups: the physical sciences and the biological sciences. The former include disciplines such as chemistry, physics, astronomy, and geology; while the latter includes the different forms of life that exist on our planet.
- Social sciences:
The social sciences are the set of disciplines that is responsible for studying human beings in behavioral and social terms. That is, its object of study can be both the individual and society. These are disciplines that were considered part of science after the previous ones; approximately in the XIX century after they transferred the scientific method to the studies of the individual and the social.